13th to 15th
"We take this as evidence that listeners actively keep track of when and where talkers say 'uh' in spoken communication, adjusting what they predict will come next for different talkers," concludes Bosker.
Speakers with a foreign accent
Would listeners also adjust their expectations with a non-native speaker?
They tested whether listeners would actively track the occurrence of 'uh', even when it appeared in unexpected places.
Click on uh… the igloo
The researchers used eye-tracking, which measures people's looks towards objects on a screen.
However, one group heard a 'typical' talker say 'uh' before 'hard-to-name' low-frequency words ("Click on uh… the igloo"), while the other group heard an 'atypical' talker saying 'uh' before 'easy-to-name' high-frequency words ("Click on uh… the hand").
Would people in this second group track the unexpected occurrences of 'uh' and learn to look at the 'easy-to-name' object?
As expected, participants listening to the 'typical' talker already looked at the igloo upon hearing the disfluency ('uh'…; that is well before hearing 'igloo').
People actively track when particular talkers say 'uh' on a moment by moment basis, adjusting their predictions about what will come next," explains Bosker.
Racial Issues, Perception, Educational Psychology, Language Acquisition, Hearing Impairment, Child Development, Infant and Preschool Learning, Literacy
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